<kiran_210@indiatimes.com>

Editor's note: A discussion on theConstancy of the Speed of Lightby Kiran, related to this article, can be foundhere. Kiran can be contacted at his email address for more information on the topic.

The behavior of the atomic constants and the velocity of
light, *c*, indicate that atomic phenomena, though
constant when measured in atomic time, are subject to variation
in dynamical time. Electromagnetic and gravitational processes
govern atomic and dynamical time respectively. If conservation
laws hold, many atomic constants are linked with *c*. Any
change in *c* affects the atom.

For example, electron orbital speeds are proportional to *c*,
meaning that atomic time intervals are proportional to *1/c*.
Consequently, the time dependent constants are affected.
Therefore Planck's constant, *h*, may be predicted to vary
in proportion to *1/c* as should the half-lives of the
radioactive elements. Conversely, the gyromagnetic ratio, *g*,
should be proportional to *c*. And variation in *c*,
macroscopically, therefore reflects in the microcosm of the atom.
A systematic, non-linear decay trend is revealed by 163
measurements of *c* in dynamical time by 16 methods over
300 years. Confirming trends also appear in 475 measurements of
11 other atomic quantities by 25 methods in dynamical time.
Analysis of the most accurate atomic data reveals that the trend
has a consistent magnitude in all quantities. Lunar orbital decay
data indicate continuing *c* decay with slowing atomic
clocks. A decay in *c* also manifests as a red-shift of
light from distant galaxies. These variations have thus been
recorded at three different levels of measurements: the
microscopic world of the atom, the intermediate level of *c*
measurements, and finally on an astronomical scale.
Observationally, this implies that the two clocks measuring
cosmic time are running at different rates. Relativity can be
shown to be compatible with these results. In addition,
gravitational phenomena are demonstrated invariant with changes
in *c* and the atom. Observational evidence also demands
consistent atomic behavior universally at any given time, *t*.
This requires the permeability and metric properties of free
space to be changing. In relativity, these attributes are
governed by the action of the cosmological constant, *Lambda*,
proportional to *c* squared, whose behavior can be shown
to follow an exponentially damped form... This is verified by the
*c* data curve fit. (Note: A dynamical second is defined
as 1/31,556,925.9747 of the earth's orbital period and was
standard until 1967. Atomic time is defined in terms of one
revolution of an electron in the ground state orbit of the
hydrogen atom. The atomic standard by the cesium clock is
accurate to limits of ± 8 x 10 (*exp* -14 ).

"We know that the discovery of the fact that the speed of light, when measured both in the direction of the rotation of the earth and in the direction opposite to that rotation, is invariable" has confronted modern astronomers with the alternative either of accepting the immobility of the earth or else of rejecting the usual notions of time and space. Thus it was that Einstein was led into considering space and time as two relative dimensions, variable in function of the state of movement of the observer, the only constant dimension being the speed of light. The latter would everywhere and always be the same, whereas time and space vary in relation to one another: it is as if space could shrink in favour of time, and inversely...

"That the movement of light is a fundamental 'measure' of the corporeal world we willingly believe, but why should this measure itself be a number, and even a definite number? ...Now, what would happen if the constant character of the speed of light ever came to be doubted---and there is every likelihood that it will be sooner or later---so that the one fixed pivot of Einstein's theory would fall down? The whole modern conception of the universe would immediately dissolve like a mirage."

A cosmological model is discussed which is based on
interpretation of the red shift by decrease of the light speed
with time everywhere in the Universe beginning with a certain
moment of time in the past. The model is described by a metric in
which the light speed depends on time and the radius of the
curvature of three-dimensional space remains constant (*c*-metric).
It is shown that this metric leads to the same observed facts and
formulas of different characteristics that the metric of standard
cosmology does but with essentially different physical
interpretation. Such a property is the consequence of conformity
of spaces being defined by both metrics. The agreement with the
fundamental physics laws is achieved by introducing the evolution
of a number of other fundamental constants synchronously with the
variation of the light speed. The model considered connected the
evolution of the Universe with evolution of physical constants
and permits explaining some unclear phenomena - for example, a
high isotropy of the relict background and superluminal speed in
quasars.

Dimensional analysis of Maxwell's equations in a planar
electromagnetic wave form implies wave propagation at a speed of *c*,
defined as (*e*_{0}* m*_{0})-1/2.
But such analysis does not specify anything at all about the
specific values of *e*_{0} or *m*_{0}.
Thus Maxwell's equations say nothing about the specific velocity
of propagation neither of an electromagnetic wave, nor of the
detectable velocity or range of velocities in any particular
observer's frame of reference. The generally accepted
frame-invariance of *c*, and hence *e*_{0}
and *m*_{0}, constitutes an assumption.
The Lorentz transformations allow the preservation of the form of
Maxwell's equations in any inertial frame of reference (IFR)
under this assumption, an assumption that Einstein raised to the
status of a postulate.

But really it may be only the experimental means by which we
measure the speed of light *c*, or *e*_{0}
and *m*_{0}, that produces the observed
frame invariance...

First, *e *was a constant required to make the units
square up in coloumbs law. The magnetic permeability, *m*,
was measured in the experimental derivation of the Biot-Savart
law for determining the magnetic field. These constants are found
in Gauss law, which comes from Coloumb's law for the electric
force on static, non-moving electrical charges. *Mu *shows
up in Ampere's law. When the curl is applied to Maxwell's
equations this gives rise to the well known classical wave
equation, and the constants *e* and *m* appear as
the speed of the wave. When you multiply them out it turns out to
be the speed of light.

This page last modified on
25/03/2002

Contact: karthik_abhiram@yahoo.com

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